Emissions from fires

RISE Fire Research has been active in the development of modern measurement methods for the analysis of toxic species produced in fires and in the collation of data concerning the amount and type of species emitted. This work has expanded over the past 5 - 10 years and continues to play an important role in our understanding of fire related phenomena.Detailed characterisation of organic and inorganic species in fire gases is also one of our specialties. Together with the section of Chemical and Materials Technology we are international leaders in this field. Of the toxic gases generated by fire carbon monoxide (CO) has traditionally been assumed to be the greatest killer of people in connection to fires. Increasingly one has realised that other more toxic gases, which are also produced in fires, may be responsible for an unknown percentage of fire deaths due to smoke inhalation. One of the most toxic gases in this context is hydrogen cyanide (HCN), which is extremely dangerous for humans to inhale. The "Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health" (IDHL) level for CO, for example, is 1200 ppm while that for HCN is 50 ppm [2].

Other chemical species, such as aerosol, also play an important role in the environmental effect of fires.

We have investigated these questions and more in a series of projects listed below:

  • Smoke Gas Analysis Using FTIR (SAFIR) 
  • Emissions from fires to the atmosphere I
  • Emissions from fires to the atmosphere II
  • Incorporation of Detailed Chemistry into CFD modelling of Compartment Fires 
  • Formation of Hydrogen Cyanide in Fires
  • CFD modelling of HCN formation in Fires
  • Soot production in fires
  • Emissions from fires in chemicals (Toxfire)
  • Aerosols produced in fires
A doctoral thesis was presented 2005 within this research area by Per Blomqvist.

Related Information


Formation of Hydrogen Cyanide in FiresModelling of soot production in firesSafir


Contact Persons

Per Blomqvist

Phone: +46 10 516 56 70

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Phone 010-516 50 00, E-mail info@ri.se

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