Energy ConversionEnergy conversion involves conversion of one form of energy to another, such as when a fuel in converted to heat or electricity, or when electricity is used to raise the temperature of low-value heat in heat pumps, or to produce cooling. RISE's working areas cover many different energy conversion processes in small-scale and large-scale systems.
The use of bioenergy in Sweden is increasing substantially, not only from traditional forest fuels and from ”new” fuels such as farmed energy crops, but also from domestic and industrial waste. In future, greater use will be made of fuels in energy combinate plants or biorefineries for the production of motor fuels, new biological raw materials (such as synthesis gas), processed fuels such as pellets, electricity, cooling and heating. RISE's working areas cover the entire chain from cultivation and harvesting to processing/upgrading, conversion, emissions and utilisation of waste products.
In addition to the use of bioenergy, the future will require new technology for the production of electricity, not least in small-scale distributed systems. This is an area in which RISE is assisting the development and implementation of methods of electricity production from sources such as solar cells and wind power, with methods of measurement being of considerable importance. Applications using hydrogen as an energy carrier are another development area in which RISE is working actively with industry.
Heat pumping technologies are used to provide both heat and cooling. RISE's work in this area is concerned with heating of detached houses, comfort cooling in the built environment, absorption cooling in larger systems and industrial cooling technology in areas such as food production and retailing.