Standards and methods used by SP for testing of heat pumps

The following is a brief description of the most common standards and methods used by SP for testing and evaluation of products.

 

General standards and methods

 

 

Standars and methods for testing domestic hot water production

 

  • ENER Lot 2, Draft regulations for water heaters and hot water storage tanks
  • SS-EN 16147 (Domestic hot water production)
  • EN 255-3 (Domestic hot water production)

 

 

 Standards and methods for testing sound power level measurements

 

 

Standards and methods for field measurements

 

General standards and methods

P-marking/CR130  

The P-mark on a heat pump indicates that the heat pump fulfills the requirements set out in certification rules SPCR 130. These rules have been developed in conjunction with manufacturers and relevant authorities, and specify required performance levels such as COP, documentation and quality assurance in manufacture.  Certification of products entitles the manufacturer to display the P-mark on the certified products. Air-to-air, air-to-water and liquid-to-water heat pumps can be tested for approval for P-marking. Currently the P-marking rules are being revised to bring them into line with new European requirements and standard EN 14825. 
 

For more information regarding P-marking of heat pumps, click here.

 

SP Method 4964

SP Method 4964 is a method used to calculate the seasonal performance factor of a system and the annual energy savings of exhaust air heat pumps. The method is based on the calculation method in standard EN 14825, including domestic hot water production. The energy savings calculated is a comparison between a house having direct electric heating and the same house having an exhaust air heat pump installed. The data used in the calculations are based on results from a number of test points derived from capacity and efficiency testing in accordance with EN 16147, EN 14825 and EN 14511 and some additional test points.
The heating demand of the house varies with the outdoor temperature; this is represented by temperature bins (amount of hours at each degree Celsius). Calculation is performed for a house with a heating demand specified at the coldest temperature of the season with an indoor temperature of 20°C and calculates the estimated net energy savings excluding energy for domestic electricity. Calculations are performed for houses placed in “average”, “warmer” and “colder” climates which are defined in EN 14825 and corresponds to locations in, Strasbourg, Athens and Helsinki. It is assumed that there is no heating demand above an outdoor air temperature of +16°C.
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SP Method 4965

SP Method 4965 is a method (under progress) used to calculate the seasonal performance factor of a system and the annual energy savings of air-to-air heat pumps. The method is based on the calculation method in standard EN 14825. The energy savings calculated is a comparison between a house having direct electric heating and the same house having an air-to-air heat pump installed. The data used in the calculations are based on results from a number of test points derived from capacity and efficiency testing in accordance with EN 14825 and EN 14511 and some additional test points.
The heating demand of the house varies with the outdoor temperature; this is represented by temperature bins (amount of hours at each degree Celsius). Calculation is performed for a house with a heating demand specified at the season’s coldest temperature with an indoor temperature of 20°C and calculates the estimated net energy savings excluding energy for domestic electricity. Calculations are performed for houses placed in “average”, “warmer” and “colder” climates which are defined in EN 14825 and corresponds to locations in, Strasbourg, Athens and Helsinki. It is assumed that there is no heating demand above an outdoor air temperature of +16°C
.


 

SP Method 4966

SP Method 4966 is a method (under progress) used to calculate the seasonal performance factor of a system and the annual energy savings of air-to-water heat pumps. The method is based on the calculation method in standard EN 14825, including domestic hot water production. The energy savings calculated is a comparison between a house having direct electric heating and the same house having an air-to-water heat pump installed. The data used in the calculations are based on results from a number of test points derived from capacity and efficiency testing in accordance with EN 16147, EN 14825 and EN 14511 and some additional test points.
The heating demand of the house varies with the outdoor temperature; this is represented by temperature bins (amount of hours at each degree Celsius). Calculation is performed for a house with a heating demand specified at the season’s coldest temperature with an indoor temperature of 20°C and calculates the estimated net energy savings excluding energy for domestic electricity. Calculations are performed for houses placed in “average”, “warmer” and “colder” climates which are defined in EN 14825 and corresponds to locations in, Strasbourg, Athens and Helsinki. It is assumed that there is no heating demand above an outdoor air temperature of +16°C
.


SP Method 4967

SP Method 4967 is a method used to calculate the seasonal performance factor of a system and the annual energy savings of water-to-water heat pumps and brine-to-water heat pumps. The method is based on the calculation method in standard EN 14825, including domestic hot water production. The energy savings calculated is a comparison between a house having direct electric heating and the same house having a water-to-water heat pump or a brine-to-water heat pump installed. The data used in the calculations are based on results from a number of test points derived from capacity and efficiency testing in accordance with EN 16147, EN 14825 and EN 14511 and some additional test point.
The heating demand of the house varies with the outdoor temperature; this is represented by temperature bins (amount of hours at each degree Celsius). Calculation is performed for a house with a heating demand specified at the season’s coldest temperature with an indoor temperature of 20°C and calculates the estimated net energy savings excluding energy for domestic electricity. Calculations are performed for houses placed in “average”, “warmer” and “colder” climates which are defined in EN 14825 and corresponds to locations in, Strasbourg, Athens and Helsinki. It is assumed that there is no heating demand above an outdoor air temperature of +16°C
.


SP updates the calculation method SP-Method 4967 regarding calculation of SCOPkombi for ground source heat pumps, read more here.



SP Method 0033 (Calculation of annual energy savings)

SP 0033 is a method used to calculate the seasonal performance factor of a system and the annual energy savings, in comparison with a house having direct electric heating. The data used in the calculations are based on results from a number of test points derived from EN 14511:2007 performance testing and some additional test points.
The heating demand as calculated in the program varies in accordance with a duration diagram for the particular house. Calculation is performed for the house with loss factors of 109 W/K and 199 W/K at 20 °C indoor temperature, and calculates the estimated net energy savings, excluding energy for domestic electricity and hot water. The houses are postulated as located in areas with average annual temperatures of 8.2 °C, 6.1 °C and 1.3 °C, which correspond to locations in Malmö, Borås and Luleå respectively. The lowest heat pump source temperature in the calculation is assumed to be -15 °C, and there is no heating demand above an outdoor air temperature of +17 °C.
Energy Savings Calculation SP Method 0033 is currently used for air-to-air heat pumps, air-to-water heat pumps and liquid-to-water heat pumps
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EN 14511

SP is accredited to perform tests in accordance with standard EN 14511. A complete test in accordance with this standard tests and measures the performance of the heat pump, derives technical data, and inspects maintenance and installation instructions. The performance test is carried out in accordance with EN 14511-3 at a number of defined test points specified in EN 14511-2.

 

EN 14511-4 specifies functional testing of a number of different steps/phases, as follows

  • Operating range of the heat pump. The heat pump must be able to start at the highest and lowest specified operating temperatures, without being stopped by its safety devices..
  • Potential blocking due to the build-up of frost is investigated. No ice may accumulate on the evaporator, and nor may water or ice drip into or blow off into the room.
  • Performance of the defrosting function is checked.
  • Correct operation of safety devices is checked by turning off the flow of both high-temperature and low-temperature heat transfer media to the heat exchangers for at least one hour, and then restoring the flows.  The heat pump must be able to start up after this test without any damage.
  • The heat pump must be capable of restarting after a power failure without any damage.
  • Draining of condensate (i.e. from the evaporator) is inspected.
  • The rating plates of the heat pump are inspected.

Air conditioners; liquid chiller packs; air-to-air-, water-to-air-, brine-to-water- and water-to-water heat pumps can be tested in accordance with the requirements of this standard.

 

EN 14825

SP is accredited to perform tests in accordance with standard EN 14825, which contains calculation methods for determination of seasonal energy efficiency and seasonal coefficient of performance. The standard also describes testing with reduced capacity in heating operation mode or cooling operation mode. The standard refers to EN 14511 and is valid for the same types of heat pumps: air-conditioning units, liquid chiller packs, air-to-air-, air-to-water-, brine-to-water- and water-to-water heat pumps. The standard serves as basis for ecodesign requirements, Commission regulation (EU) No 206/2012, and energy labeling requirements, Commission delegated regulation (EU) No 626/2011, for air-conditioning units and air-to-air heat pumps (ENER Lot 10), as well as it serves as basis for future proposals on ecodesign and energy labeling requirements for heat pumps with water based heating systems (ENER Lot 1), i.e. air-to-water-, water-to water-, brine-to-water- exhaust air- and direct expansion heat pumps.

 

EHPA testing regulation och EHPA quality label

EHPA Testing Regulations and EHPA Quality Label 
The EHPA Quality Label scheme operates in Sweden, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. SP performs the necessary tests and inspections for the scheme.  Testing includes performance, security, sound level and electrical characteristics, together with inspection of technical data, maintenance and installation instructions.
Air-to-water, water-to-water and direct-expansion heat pumps can be tested and inspected for approval under this scheme
.

For more information, click here.

 

Testing for NF-mark

SP is authorised to perform testing for NF-mark, which is a quality symbol for the French market. The testing includes capacity testing, sound power level measurements and to a certain extent safety control tests. The heat pump is tested and marked for the temperature condition it is intended to work at.
NF-mark is valid for air-to-air-, air-to-water-, brine-to-water-, water-to-water-, exhaust air- and direct expansion heat pumps. The marking also includes heat pumps intended for pool heating.
Read the certificate stating that SP is authorised to perform testing for NF-mark
here.

 

SS-EN 15879-1

This standard describes the testing procedure for direct-expansion ground-coupled heat pumps. The heating coil of the heat pump is assembled in a brine bath held at constant temperature during the test. A complete test includes performance and functional inspections and a review of technical data, maintenance and installation instructions. A function test includes measurement of the operating temperature range, correct operation after a power failure, and correct operation of safety devices in the event of pressure loss in the refrigerant or during failure of heat transfer medium flow.
Direct-expansion heat pumps may be tested in accordance with this method
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CEN TS 14825  

This test method is used to test heating or cooling mode operation under part-load conditions. The method specifies the testing procedure, depending on whether the heat pump has constant capacity, variable capacity or incremental capacity control. This is a technical specification associated with EN 14511, and is used for testing the same types of heat pumps: air conditioners, liquid chillers, air-to-air-, water-to-air-, brine-to-water- and water-to-water heat pumps. This test method is replaced by the standard EN 14825.


SP metod 2800 

SP is accredited to perform tests in accordance with SP Method 2800 that the method of performance-testing of electrically driven exhaust air heat pumps, determining their thermal power capacity, hot water production capacity and ventilation performance. Air leakage, thermal insulation and standby power requirement are also tested. The data from the test are used to calculate the system seasonal performance factor.

Standards and methods for testing domestic hot water production

ENER Lot 2, Draft regulations for water heaters and hot water storage tanks 

The so called ”transitional methods”  in these regulation proposal (ENER Lot 2) describe and refer to methods on how to test and evaluate capacity and efficiency for domestic hot water production that will be used to asses if the product fulfills the requirements in future ecodesign requirements as well as energy labeling requirements of the products.  This applies to products powered by electricity, gas or fossil fuels. The test measures performance over a period of one day, with a number of hot water draw-off periods. The time and energy requirements for heating up, energy use, standby power losses and overall efficiency of the equipment are measured and evaluated.

 

SS-EN 16147 (Domestic hot water production) 

SP is accredited to perform domestic  hot water production tests in accordance with SS-EN 16147. This test method specifies a number of draw-offs over a 24-hour period, measuring and evaluating the heating-up periods, energy use, standby power losses and COPtc  of the heat pump. The maximum quantity of useable hot water and the reference hot water temperature are measured during a single draw-off. The method includes testing of safety functions and inspection of technical data, maintenance and installation instructions.
The method applies for electrically driven heat pumps
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EN 255-3 (Domestic hot water production)  

The test involves two draw offs of half the volume of the storage tank, together with a single tapping to determine the maximum quantity of useable hot water and the reference hot water temperature.  The heating-up periods, energy use, standby power losses and COPt  of the heat pump are measured and evaluated. The test also includes verification of product marking on the heat pump.
The standard EN 255-3 has been repealed and replaced by SS-EN 16147. SP is accredited for the method and performs tests in accordance with EN 255-3 as required by customers
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Standards and methods for testing sound power level measurements

The sound power level is a measure of the contribution of noise to the surroundings caused by the heat pump. The loudness of the noise depends on the size of the room in which the heat pump is installed, its shape and its attenuation (echo). How the noise is perceived depends not only on its level, but also on its characteristics.


SS-EN 12102 (Sound power level measurements) 

SP is accredited to perform sound level tests according to SS EN 12102. The method is used to measure the airborne noise to the surroundings from heat pumps, air conditioners, liquid chillers and dehumidifiers when in operation.  The method is used for sound power level determination.


ISO 3747 (Sound power level measurements)   

This standard specifies a method for determination of sound power level for heat pumps. Sound power level measurements are performed at specified positions around the sound source and around a reference sound source, from which the sound power level can be calculated.


ISO 3741 (Sound power level measurements) 

This standard specifies a method for determination of sound power level for heat pumps in a reverberation room.

 

Standards and methods for field measurements 

SP Method 1721 (field measurement method)

SP is accredited to perform field measurement tests in accordance with SP Method 1721 which is a method for measurement of the capacity and electricity consumption of air-to-air heat pumps in the field. It can be used for heat pumps in both heating and cooling operating modes

 

SS 2620 

This standard is used when testing the performance of large heat pumps. The standard refers to field testing of heat pumps in field. It is also applicable for delivery testing of heat pumps at the factory or equivalent. The standard relates primarily to electrically driven heat pumps, but where applicable it can also can be used for heat pumps with other drive motors and for refrigeration applications.

The standard does not include test on electrical safety, mechanical safety, control equipment and sound power level. 

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