RISE Combustion Laboratory in Borås – a centre for combustion equipment and fuels up to 500 kWYou have the equipment, the fuel and the questions - we have the test rigs, the analyses facilities and the competence!
New biofuels and small-scale technology, with high availability and simple care requirements – just what manufacturers and consumers want. Everyone who’s tried burning high-ash pellets or agrofuels knows that it’s not always so easy, and that different fuels behave in different ways. With the equipment and processes for producing clean wood fuels constantly evolving, new ideas need to be tested and old ones reviewed.
With our experience of small-scale firing of wood and wood pellets, as well as of agrofuels, we can help you with advice and practical tests, whether your questions are to do with fuel qualities, ash chemistry, the combustion process, emissions or corrosion.
The picture shows burning wood chips in a stoker-fired boiler. Wood chip boilers are an example of the type of equipment that RISE Combustion Laboratory in Borås tests and certifies.
A first reply to the question "Can we burn this?" is provided by a fuel analysis. Our chemistry laboratory analyses calorific value, moisture content, ash content and the proportion of combustible substances. Analysis of the main elements present in the ash (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine etc.) tells us a lot about when the fuel starts to sinter and form slag, whether deposits and corrosion need to be considered, or whether there will be significant quantities of dust or fly ash. The presence of trace elements (cadmium, zinc, lead, arsenic etc.) can indicate a need for treatment and special processing of residual products. Nitrogen content of the fuel can give an idea of the likely concentration of NOx in the flue gases. Physical properties, too, such as density, the proportion of fines, flow characteristics etc., all provide information on how the fuel behaves. These analyses are performed in accordance with established standards and methods, and we also develop our own custom methods to suit customers’ specific needs.
Fuel pellets and slag from reed canary grass.
Agrofuels – fuels from the agricultural sector, such as hay, grains, rapeseed, energy crops, hemp etc. – represent an as-yet unexploited resource. Their sintering tendency can be avoided in such ways as with correct firing methods, the use of additives or by a suitable mixture of fuels.
"How will a particular fuel behave in my burner or boiler?" Some aspects of the combustion process can be assessed with the naked eye. Others require instrumentation for proper evaluation: aspects such as how the heat released affects complete combustion of the fuel and slag formation in the bed, how fine-tuning of the air supply quantity and position affects hydrocarbon concentrations, how much of the invisible dust can be avoided by correct settings, and so on.
Dust particles are divided into size fractions in a
low-pressure impactor and are sent for analysis.
We have conventional instrumentation for temperature, flue gas analysis and dust measurements, as well as advanced equipment for analysis of particles and gaseous products of combustion. Or with your equipment installed in one of our test rigs, you can extend your knowledge, test your designs and minimise any problems such as unexplained flame-out of the burner or corrosion attack in the flue gas duct.
We have custom-designed laboratory reactors for special investigations under controlled conditions: tests intended to find answers to particular questions. Tests such as these can be a highly cost-effective way of establishing, for example, the conditions needed for using a particular fuel.
Advisory services and problem-solving
RISE has many years’ experience of all aspects of combustion in general, and of small-scale combustion in particular. We have extensive field test equipment for investigations at site, such as in larger CHP boilers. And of course we can provide advice and assist with problem-solving when required.