Publications about Rescue Services

RISE has participated in several different research projects related to rescue services, ranging from powder as the first interference method in the 80’s to extinguishing with water mist today. The different research areas are:

Technology, tactics and methodology

Within this field, research is carried out which has not been the center of the extinguishing technique itself, but the different methods in its entirety. One of the latest projects that RISE has participated in was the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agancy-financed “Storskadeproblematik”. The project analyzed different major fires that have taken place in Sweden between the years of 1991 and 2013 by how the usages of new extinguishing techniques have been able to decrease the injuries. The report gives tips on how you tactically can think in different scenarios. In another project, “Förmåga och begränsningar av förekommande släcksystem”, a study was being made that showed which available extinguishing methods that exist on today’s market and portray their ability to be used on external extinguishing. The report describes actual events where different kinds of extinguishing methods are being used in a successful way and the focus is on extern environment and working environment. In the back there is a chart that roughly describes the differences between the different extinguishing systems that are the most common in Sweden.
In 2017 at RISE laboratory in Norway, tests were carried out of gas cooling from the outside of the building as well as the extinguishing of construction fires. The report “Slokkemetoder med lite vann” shows that multiple of extinguishing techniques can be used from the outside of the building to lower the temperature in the fire room and eventually extinguish the fire completely.  The cutting extinguisher was the most effective tool to use in extinguishing construction fires in cavities.


Hox, K., Sæter Bøe, A., Slokkemetoder med lite vann, SPFR-rapport A17 20099-01:1, RISE Fire Research AS, 2017

Holmstedt, G., Johansson, N., Särdqvist, S., Vylund, L., Ingason, H., Lindström, J., Palmkvist, K., Nystrand, B., Storskadeproblematiken - Brand i byggnad, MSB rapport: MSB827, Myndigheten för Samhällskydd och Beredskap, 2015

Lindström, J., Appel, G., Palmkvist, K., Bialas, K.O., Förmåga och begränsningar av förekommande släcksystem vid brand i byggnad – fokus på miljöarbete, MSB rapport MSB618, Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap, 2013


Underground Constructions

TUSC (Tunnel and Underground Safety Center) is RISE’s research platform for underground constructions with a collected specialist competence within fire, risk and safety. For more information about the research within TUSC, go to their website. Under the years of 2012-2014 a project called “Taktik och Metodik i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU)” was performed where full scale extinguishing trials in underground environment were being held and the result is being presented in multiple reports as well as becoming a course at Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency.


Ingason, H., Vylund, L., Lönnermark, A., Kumm, M., Fridolf, K., Frantzich, H., Palm, A., Palmkvist, K. Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU) – sammanfattningsrapport, SP-rapport 2015:17, 2015, Borås.

Lönnermark, A., Vylund, L., Ingason, H., Palm, A., Krister Palmkvist, Kumm, M., Frantzich, H., and Fridolf, K., Rekommendationer för räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, SP Report 2015:19, 2015.

Kumm, M., Palmkvist, K., and Palm, A., "Värmekamera vid brand under mark - ett utbildningsmaterial för räddningstjänsten", SiST 2014:3, 2014.

Kumm, M., Palm, A., Palmkvist, K., Lönnermark, A., and Ingason, H., Räddningsinsats i tunnelmiljö - Fullskaleförsök i Tistbrottet, Sala, Mälardalens Högskola, SiST 2014:1, 2014.

Palm, A., Taktik och ledning vid brand under mark, Mälardalens Högskola, SiST 2014:2, 2014.

Ingason, H., Kumm, M., Nilsson, D., Lönnermark, A., Claesson, A., Li, Y. Z., Fridolf, K., Åkerstedt, R., Nyman, H., Dittmer, T., Forsén, R., Janzon, B., Meyer, G., Bryntse, A., Carlberg, T., Newlove-Eriksson. L., Palm, A. (2012) The METRO project - Final report. SiST 2012:8, Västerås: School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University


Vehicles and New Energy Carriers

Under the year of 2016 the latest research about the risks with new energy carriers in road tunnels and underground garages was compiled. Within TUSC (Tunnel and Underground Safety Center) research will be conducted on gas cylinders and how they are affected of fires and during 2017, small scale trials will be held. A pilot study made in 2016 showed that it was not uncommon for people to perish due fires that occurs after a collision. RISE Fire Research AS in Norway made full scale fire trials of electric cars which showed that the batteries in the car can ignite if they are being exposed to powerful collisions.


Sæter Bøe, A., Fullskala branntest av elbil, SPFR-rapport A17 20096:03-1, RISE Fire Research AS, 2017

Ochoterena, R. m.fl., 2016. Post-collision fires in road vehicles, a pre-study, SP-rapport 2016:55. 2016

Gehandler. J., Karlsson, P., Vylund, L., Risker med nya energibärare i vägtunnlar och underjordiska garage, SP-rapport 2016:84, 2016



Under the years 1997-2002 multiple research projects about pressure ventilation were being held together with Södra Älvsborgs Räddningsförbund (SÄRF). The working method that developed gives a good and positive experience from real occurrences. In the report “Storskadeproblematiken” there is an annex that sums up the research that have carried out on ventilations.


Ingason, H., Fallberg, R., Övertrycksventilation i medelstora lokaler – försök med rökdykare, FoU Rapport P21-397/02, Räddningsverket 2002.

Ingason, H., Fallberg, R., Positive Pressure Ventilation in Medium-Sized Premises, Fire Technology, v 38, 2002, pp. 213 – 230.

Fallberg, R., Ingason, H., Erfarenheter med övertrycksventilation, FoU Rapport P21 331/00, Räddningsverket 2000.

Ingason, H., Fallberg, R., Övertrycksventilation i medelstora lokaler, försök med mobila fläktar, SP Rapport 1998:41.

Ingason, H., Fallberg, R., Palmkvist, K., Gustavsson, S., Brandförsök med offensiv släckning kombinerat med övertryckningsventilering - Erfarenheter och mätresultat från försök i Svaneholm 5-6 nov 1997, SP AR 1998:08, Brandteknik, Borås 1998.

Övertrycksventilation - Förstudie över brandventilation med mobila fläktar, FoU Rapport P21-092/94, Räddningsverket 1994.


Water mist

RISE has since the beginning of the 21st century studied about water mist and its ability to extinguish fires, both as fixed installed extinguishing system and as an operative tool by emergency services. "Släcksystem med vattendimma - en förnyad kunskapssammanställning” compiles the recent years technology development within fixed extinguishing systems. In the report “Storskadeproblematiken” there is an annex that sums up the research that have carried out on cutting extinguishers.


Ochoterena, R., Willstrand, O. & Försth, M., Electrosprays for fire suppression, SP-rapport 2016:15. 2016

Arvidson, M., Släcksystem med vattendimma : en förnyad kunskapssammanställning, SP-rapport 2014:30. 2014

Svensson, R., Lindström, J., Ochoterena, R., Försth, M., CFD simulation of the Cutting extinguisher, SP-report 2014:43. 2014 

Ingason, H., Fallberg, R., Palmkvist, K., Edholm, U., Övertrycksventilation kombinerad med skärsläckare, SP Rapport 2012:63. 2012

Försth, M., Ochoterena, R., Lindström, J. Spray characterization of the cutting extinguisher, SP, Arbetsrapport 2012:14, 2012

SÄRF och SP, Skärsläckarkonceptets operativa användande. MSB 0167-10, 2010.

Cutting Extinguishing Concept – practical and operational use – MSB report 2010 - EU Project FIREFIGHT II, Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap.



In the 80’s multiple projects were being held related to the extinguishing of fires with the help of powder. Amongst other things, attempts were made with powder as first-hand operation in room fires. The result showed that powder is effective on the grounds of lowering the fire gas temperatures and a good tool to have on smaller units. In another project, the extinguishing mechanisms of powder were being studied and there it was shown that the quenching effect of powder appears entirely or largely due to cooling. The effectivity increased with decreased particle size just like for the water mist. In the year of 1999 a trial was being held with different kind of fire extinguishers in home environment and the result of this project led to today’s recommendation that every household should have a 6 kilogram ABC powder extinguisher with minimum efficiency class of 43A 233B C.


Wetterlund, H., Handbrandsläckare i hemmiljö, SP-rapport 1999:13. 1999

Holmstedt, G., Persson, H., Säwemark, G., Släckning av gasdiffusionsflammor med pulver och haloner vid olika froudes tal, SP-rapport 1986:24. 1986



Within the competence platform “Fuel Storage Safety” there is a large experience around fire extinguishing with the help of foam. On that site there is links to the project ETANKFIRE that is a research project about how you extinguish ethanol fires. In 2005 all the current experiences and knowledge about A-foam and CAFS was being compiled 


Persson, H., Sammanställning av kunskaper och erfarenheter kring A-skum och CAFS, SP-rapport 2005:46. 2005



In 2005 and 2008 multiple trials were being held where emissions from fires were being measured. During 2017 a course will be conducted together with Southern Älvsborgs Rescue Service about extinguishing water management.


Lönnermark, A., Blomqvist, P., and Marklund, S., "Emissions from Simulated Deep-Seated Fires in Domestic Waste", Chemosphere, 70, 626-639, 2008.

Lönnermark, A., "Analyses of Fire Debris after Tyre Fires and Fires in Electrical and Electronics Waste", SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, SP REPORT 2005:44, Borås, Sweden, 2005.

Lönnermark, A., "Analyser av brandgaser och släckvatten i samband med brandförsök med hushållsavfall", SP Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut, P402284, Borås, 2005.

Lönnermark, A., and Blomqvist, P., "Emissions from Fires in Electrical and Electronics Waste", SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, SP Report 2005:42, Borås, Sweden, 2005.

Lönnermark, A., and Blomqvist, P., "Emissions from Tyre Fires", SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, SP Report 2005:43, Borås, Sweden, 2005.

Blomqvist, P., Lönnermark, A., and Simonson, M., "Miljöbelastning vid bränder och andra olyckor - Utvärdering av provtagning och analyser", Räddningsverket, P21-452/04, Karlstad, Sweden, 2004.


Anne Steen-Hansen, Bøe, A., Hox, K., Mikalsen, R., Stensaas, J., Storesund Hva, K., Kan vi lære av brannen i Lærdal i januar 2014? Vurdering av brannspredningen. SPFR-rapport SPFR A14109. 2014

Kumm, M., Lönnermark, A. & Zakirov, A., 2013. Indikatorer för att bedöma räddningstjänstens insatsförmåga : -med hänsyn till de lokala förhållandena, Arbetsrapport 2013:13 Mälardalens Högskola. 2013
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Phone 010-516 50 00, E-mail

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